Various Aspects of Laser Etching Machines for Metal Surfaces

Laser engraving and etching technology is nothing but discoloring the surface of a product with a concentrated beam of laser light. Laser beam does not offer any light on its own but it can discolor the area where it is applied. By changing the color of the area where the laser beam is applied this technology works. Laser engraving and etching is more perfect than all other etching and engraving technologies. Besides precision these technologies are also preferred for marking hard material surfaces like that of metal ensuring highest durability. Lastly, most laser etching machines for metal in spite of being a  little pricey actually saves a good amount of cost just because these machines hardly require any maintenance whereas offer the best etching impression.

What is laser etching?

Laser etching is basically a subset of laser engraving. Laser etching is done by making the laser beam melt the material surface. Laser etching ( works in the following ways.

•  It basically works through melting the metal surface by high heat of laser beam.

•  The melted material expands and causes a raised mark.

•  Compared to engraving etching offers much less depth in marking.

On a broader scale laser marking technology can be classified into two distinct types, namely, laser engraving and laser etching. For marking any type of surfaces with precise and durable impression at a great cost this marking technology is preferred over others. Laser engraving and etching is the quickest and performance driven ways to mark diverse surfaces including glass, wood, metal and plastic surfaces. From marking industrial products to etching jewelry items or etching decorative items, this type of etching and engraving is widely used for different marking objectives.  Particularly for metal surfaces laser etching and engraving is widely used across industries and manufacturing environments.

Benefits of laser etching machine

As laser etching and engraving offers highest precision and versatile marking on an array of surfaces including metal it is considered as the most advanced marking method that suits all types of purposes. Laser etching is particularly useful in marking extremely small areas and the method can be utilized for repetitive marking on a lot of items and on a large scale.

Actually laser etching process which is the most advanced method for offering precise and most durable impression on an extremely small surface offers some cot advantages as well. First of all, laser etching machines in spite of their higher initial cost can actually be cost saving in the long run. As these machines require least maintenance and recurring cost, they can be considered best value for money option as far as any marking and engraving task is considered.

Laser engraving versus laser etching

Laser etching involves less complexity compared to laser engraving. A majority of laser etching machines are powered by computer and controller software for optimum control and output in the process of etching. On the other hand, engraving demands more of personal skills and the output can vary depending upon that. While the engraving process is mainly limited to line oriented design, laser etching machine is capable to print graphics with great clarity.

Typically in laser etching, it does not require to hold the material being etched and so there is almost no risk of damaging the product in the process. Though laser engraving also undergoes a similar process they can often discolor the surface in greater degree or can be responsible to create more depth.

Laser etching machines being capable to leave color during the etching process, can actually add more design elements. Furthermore, while engraving machines are mainly limited to surfaces like metal, glass, wood and some special material, laser etching can handle wide array of materials for diverse purposes of creating marks on them.

Some of the key differences between laser etching and laser engraving are mentioned below:

•  Laser etching is capable to transform the finish at the metal surface and naturally one can expect much better reflectivity and contrast through it.

•  Unlike engraving laser etching removes very little or nothing from the product surface.

•  Laser etching can offer precise and durable marking impression on a variety of surfaces including metal, polymers and ceramics.

Some Characteristics of Handheld Engraving Machines

Machine engraving is a too important procedure in the manufacturing process for product identification in the production line and for marking the brand name and product information. Actually marking or engraving is more durable and inexpensive compared to stickers or nametags and this largely contributed to the popularity of engraving machines. From marking a logo to the company brand name to the manufacturing information like batch number, date of manufacturing to alpha numeric codes engraving process ensures marking all kinds of relevant information on the product. There is an array of marking machines and technologies to get diverse marking and engraving tasks done. Besides large engraving machines handheld machines also became popular as they are handy and easy to maneuver in a variety of settings. Moreover, they are also known for least footprint and hence is space saving as well. Modern hand held engraving machine or portable marking machines also come with user friendly control panel and software to guide the marking and engraving process.

Various types of Marking Machines

Before we venture to concentrate on handheld engraving machines we must have a brief overview of various types of engraving machines used in different manufacturing environments. Among the most used and advanced marking and engraving machines we must name laser marking machines and dot peen marking machines before all. These two broader categories of marking machines can further be classified into various sub types. For example, laser machines can be of various types like Fiber laser marking machines, CO2 based laser marking machines, etc. Similarly, there can be various types of dot peen marking machine like the desktop ones and the handheld one.

Dot Peen Marking Machine

Basically dot peen marking machines use pneumatic stylus or marking pin for producing marking impression consisting of closely knit tiny dots. Because of using pneumatic marking pin this type of marking machines are referred as also pneumatic marking machines. Dot peen marking machines typically produces the marking impression by coming into contact with the product surface. As per the size, ergonomics and placing of the device in marking task these machines are broadly categorized into two types, respectively as, handheld machines that are portable in size and offers a handy ergonomics and the larger sized desktop machines.

Handheld Dot Peen Marking Machine

Handheld dot peen marking machines offers the same dot peen marking technology but they are handy and portable to be held by the operator in hand. As these machines offer better flexibility of use because of not being attached to a place they are extremely useful across diverse industrial and manufacturing environment.

Benefits of handheld marking machine

In spite of being smaller in size and portable enough, these machines offer all the functionalities and effectiveness that one can demand from this marking technology.  Besides the advantage associated with less footprint and flexibility there are other advantages as well that make this marking machine one of the most preferred one across diverse industrial atmospheres.  Let us discuss below some of the key benefits of using handheld marking machine.

•  These machines are more compact and take fewer footprints making them ideal for even small units where here is a space constraint.

•  Moreover, just because of smaller size and portability they just can be carried easily and comes handy in marking relatively inaccessible areas.

•  Unlike the desktop variants handheld dot peen machines have an inbuilt CNC controller for ensuring precise marking impression. While you can get the same control and precision as with a desktop machine it offers the ease of portability.

•  Equipped with good quality handgrip and ergonomic design handheld engraving machines are more user optimized compared to the desktop variants. The lighter weight and compact design further adds to the user comfort.

•  In spite of being smaller in size these machines are actually more efficient in performing marking and engraving tasks. Typically for marking product surfaces that cannot be easily reached by large sized machines, this type of machines comes as handy and useful.

•  For marking delicate and movable objects these machines are particularly useful. This is why this type of portable markers is widely used across diverse industries like medical, automobile, engineering, military and many others.

Modern Marking Systems for the Industrial Use

In any product, components and parts besides playing their elementary role in the respective product, they also need to tell about themselves. In the referential context of modern industries and manufacturing environments they need to answer a few questions concerning their origin, make, authenticity, date of manufacturing, warranty and service status, etc. All components and parts pertaining to diverse industries including aviation, automobile, electronics, consumer durable, medical equipment, heavy machinery, construction equipment and products, require these details and prove to be critical for maintenance professionals, technicians, quality assurance professionals and inspectors in a product value chain. Precise and durable marking impression achieved by modern marking systems let these components and parts tell about themselves accurately. Let us offer here a quick look at some of the most popular and widely used industrial marking systems across diverse engineering and manufacturing units.

Laser marking system

No other marking system can achieve such durability and precision of marking an impression as laser marking. It is not only regarded as the fastest marking machine, but also known to handle marking task on an array of surfaces including hardest metals like carbides. Moreover, quality assured by this type of marking is also unmatched compared to other types of marking. From minimizing wastage of resources to fast paced, accurate output, this is the most advanced marketing technology so far. Among various types of laser marking systems fiber laser systems are most advanced and user optimized.

Tag marking machines

Tag marking machines are capable to deliver diverse marking impressions rather than just mark alpha numeric text on metal plates as they are commonly referred for. These machines have the ability to create logos, images and completely machine readable bar codes on various types of metal plates and tags. Tag marking in industries is used for product traceability purposes and for component marking and highly equipped modern marking machines can deliver optimum tag marking output.

Dot Peen Marking Equipment

Dot peen marking is one of the most preferred marking solutions widely acclaimed for its versatility and capability to handle a wide array of marking tasks. The range of different marking and engraving tasks accomplished by dot peen marking systems includes nameplate engraving to large integrated marking solutions for marking components in a production facility. Dot peen marking systems comes with computerized touch screen interface with guiding software for more precise and automated marking output. The marking stylus used in these types of machines is made of either tungsten or high quality alloy.

Pneumatic Marking Machine

Pneumatic marking machines are popular marking systems across the industries and manufacturing niches for their reliable performance and steady output. The handheld or portable pneumatic marking machines are also widely popular thanks to the handy and useful way of maneuvering them. The computerized portable screen in the handheld marking machines clearly displays the marking object and the dimension and measurement of the content to be marked. Adjusting the measurement and marking position on the screen the technician can control the marking task accordingly and can achieve precision. The screen interface in a handheld marking machine is typically located just above the hand grip.

Ultrasonic welding

Ultrasonic welding is one of the most common industrial techniques used for combining two metal pieces together. By local use of high frequency ultrasonic traditional acoustic vibrations held-together pieces are transformed into solid weld. Though this is not used particularly for marking or engraving purposes, in various heavy metal industries this method is often used to join an engraved metal plate with a bigger metallic part.

In modern manufacturing sectors, automation is playing the key role in driving new modes of marking and engraving. More advanced a marking technology is considered, more it would be optimized for automation. If one looks at the evolution of modern marking and engraving systems over the years, the increasing focus on automation would be clear. The above mentioned examples starting from latest fiber laser marking systems to dot peen marking to pneumatic marking systems, only tells us how the drive for automation paved the way for new marking technology.

Fiber Laser Marking System: What Goes Into Them?

Laser marking by leaps and bounds crossed all other types of marking and engraving technology in popularity and acclaim. It is one of the most popular labeling medium now. The use of this technology offers an array of advantages in respect of identifying product inventories and providing helpful product information for the consumers. Moreover, wide range of materials and surfaces that can be marked with this technology made it one of the most versatile marking technologies so far. Among all other laser marking systems, the fiber laser marking machine will give you the optimum result.

How Does Laser Marking Work?

It took the industries by storm when the laser marking technology came. Using condensed light beams for marking and engraving purposes, was altogether a new concept that quickly rose to unprecedented popularity across various industries and manufacturing niches. Since the invention of laser decades before, several applications have been devised for using lasers. One of these applications is obviously the modern precision driven marking and engraving.

Fiber-based laser marking technology is the latest development in laser marking. Laser marking machines use bundle of optical fibers together, which are further having a substance responsible for increasing their conductivity. The fibers of this type of marking systems are pumped with light-emitting diodes. The light beam thus passes to reach the optical head.  From the optical head the powerful light beam finally is extended over the marking surface to create the laser marking impression. In this kind of laser marking machine fiber pumping technology is used to dope the fibers with a conductive element called Ytterbium.

The light beam from the laser marking machine creates marking an impression by using one of the methods mentioned below.

•  Laser marking or engraving, just by changing the surface color of the marked product

•  Removing the material layer and creating marking impression

Fiber laser marking can be used on a wide variety of materials and surfaces including different types of metal, leather and plastics. Almost all metallic surfaces lend themselves very well to this type of engraving technology, including platinum, stainless steel, carbide, tungsten, copper, aluminum or medical-grade alloys silver, gold and bronze.

Diverse Use of Fiber Laser Marking

Fiber laser marking is used for marking a wide variety of materials from diverse industrial niches and products. Some of the common and widely acclaimed uses of this marking technology are discussed briefly below.

Medical Devices: As surgical equipments and medical devices need frequent sterilization at high temperatures the identifying marks and labels on them are more prone to the wear and tear. To withstand such cleansing process durable marking impression is required, which can only be given by fiber laser marking systems.

Engraving jewelry:  Jewelry products sometimes need unique identification marks for copyright protection or for security measures. Moreover to engrave crucial dates or names on jewelry also such engraving technology is widely used.

Laser cutting: For cutting marks in jewelry and other industries laser cutting technology is often used. Generally light metals are used for cutting out a name or monograms or other designs as per requirement.

Fiber laser marking is also the most preferred marking technology to mark computer parts like printed circuit boards.

Benefits of Fiber Laser Marking

Fiber laser marking is simpler, cost effective and efficient, whether for large industrial use or for small professional use. This type of marking machines requires only minimal maintenance and one saves huge on day to day operational cost. Being the state of the art marking technology, it will give you complete peace of mind as far as precision of marking and durability is concerned.

Laser Marking: Mark Designs on Fragile Products Quite Conveniently

There is an array of methods for marking and engraving different surfaces including dot peen marking, electrochemical marking and laser marking. All of these marking techniques having their own set of advantages and disadvantages are not recommended for every surface where marking or engraving is supposed to be done. Among these marking technologies, laser marking offer the biggest advantage of marking a wide variety of surfaces including metals, plastic and fragile and easily breakable surfaces like silicon and glass. This typical all-surface maneuverability makes laser marking systems so advantageous.

Marking or engraving items that are fragile and delicate in character material is surely a challenging task. In marking this type of items there is great risk of causing permanent damage and naturally marking can cost huge if not carried out carefully by addressing this risk factor. Laser marking technology is the only reliable marking technology that perfectly takes care of all types of material surfaces without causing any risk. This type of marking is devoid of any risk and can be applied to all types of material surfaces including plastic, silicon and glass.

Furthermore, with computerized control panel and user friendly digital interface modern laser etching machine ensure high level of precision and accuracy. The control panel screen gives you a clear picture of what is going to be printed along with the exact measurements and dimensions. With just simple buttons operated maneuvers a precise and accurate marking is guaranteed in a variety of delicate and fragile material surfaces. Laser marking machines are capable to print all types of contents including text, designs and alphanumeric strings whether on bigger or over very small surface. Unlike other marking machines that just cannot handle small surfaces laser marking can make an impression fit twenty or thirty character string in centimeter of space or even in less space than that.

Though this marking technology has gained huge popularity across various industries because of its precision driven output, it has become practically irreplaceable in some industries where marking fragile and delicate products is a regular requirement. Electronics goods because of their delicate nature are often required very precise and careful marking and engraving and in this context laser marking machines ( plays a really prominent role. Moreover, with the advancement of technology most electronic devices and the parts are getting smaller and delicate with every passing day and consequently the need of an advanced marking technology that can handle such delicate surfaces is a priority for manufacturers of electronic goods.

Medical equipment industry is another potential manufacturing sector that requires laser marking. Surgical instruments and other crucial medical equipment are often coated with harsh material preventing them from being easily marked with any sharp edged instrument and naturally laser marking technology seems ideal for them. Laser marking does not require intervening the surface as it works by just offering strong light beams over the surface from a distance and so any sensitive surface that is either have a delicate nature or have an impenetrable coating can only be marked with fiber laser marking machine.

There are too many other advantages of this type of marking. First of all, it offers more durable and permanent marking impression than any other marking technology and that too is done just quickly giving the product surface a permanent label. This type of marking is suitable for objects of multiple sizes and dimensions. Finally, computerized control panel can deliver huge level of accuracy leading up to micron level.

Laser engraving machines can implement marking impressions over all kinds of surfaces including titanium, wood, metal, glasses, ceramics, gold, silver, nickel, acrylic, steel, iron, stainless steel, plastics, aluminum, copper and platinum. Laser engraving and marking as the advanced technology equipped for all kinds of material surfaces enjoy huge popularity across industries and they offer unparalleled quality output in marking impression.

The cost advantages of using laser marking are also worth considering. This type of technology may require a good initial investment as far as installation and setup cost is concerned. But if you consider the marking output down the line in few years you will invariably acknowledge the huge savings you make because facing no requirement of maintenance and least recurring expense. Moreover, with highest quality marking and engraving output you always maintain good reputation for your products and consumer satisfaction. This type of engraving and marking technology is unquestionably more efficient, more environment-friendly, faster, adaptive and effective in contrast to all other marking technologies.

CO2 Vs Fiber Laser Marking Technologies

To understand the variety of laser marking technologies and their internal differences in providing quality marking output we should begin with the basics of laser technology as such. Each object in our universe is made up of microscopic particles referred as atoms. Now these atoms are always in moving state. They are vibrating, moving and or rotating all the time. This movement happens thanks to different degree of excitation which corresponds to the reaction of atoms in different levels of motion. To make an atom reach certain level of excitation any type of energy on the given object must be applied. This energy can be electricity, heat or simply light.

Now just as the electron of the atom moves to a higher excitation level, it also wants to get back to its original state and when doing so it tries to shred its energy which is called a photon. These photons are nothing but particles of light. These light photons combined together make up the laser beam. Now this laser light beam can be created in a variety of ways and accordingly different types of laser technologies have been surfaced.

This difference between various types of laser marking technologies, particularly the difference between CO2 and Fiber Laser marking is a very common point of interest for the customers of laser marking and engraving machines.  Here below we would like to explain the differences between these two laser marking technologies in clear and simple terms.

Fiber laser marking

Basically, in fiber laser marking machines cluster of diodes create the fiber laser light. In this technology the light is first of all channeled and then amplified through the fiber optic cable which looks similar to the data transfer cables. The light amplified in this way by exiting the fiber cable is then collimated and thereafter a dense light focus is created on the material surface to give a sharp marking impression. That is how fiber laser marking works. Fiber laser marking compared to traditional CO2 machines is more efficient and user friendly. Some of the crucial benefits of fiber laser marking machine include the following.

•  There is no need of moving parts or mirrors in the source of light which is required in conventional CO2 laser machines. This results in low maintenance cost and savings in operating cost.

•  Fiber laser marking is considered 200% more efficient than its competitor CO2 marking technology.  It also offers great advantage through lower running costs.

•  The superior technology of this type of laser marking machines facilitates much higher speed in either marking or engraving any thin material. In comparison to CO2 machine of similar capacity the fiber laser machine is at least 3 times faster in cutting or marking thin materials.

•  Offer great precision driven marking and engraving output without any risk of back reflections causing damage. Any type of material including copper, brass, and aluminum can be penetrated through this technology without the least problem.

CO2 laser marking machine

CO2 laser marking machines have their own set of advantages. As far as cutting, marking or engraving thicker materials at a rapid speed is concerned CO2 machines prove more effective.  In material thickness typically above 5 mm CO2 machine offers the highest speed. Here are a few things to consider about CO2 machines before you make your decision of buying your ideal laser marking machine.

•  CO2 machine is considered more versatile and flexible for all types of marking and engraving tasks. Moreover, being the older technology they are often preferred by technicians. Being able to handle a variety of thickness it offers ideal making solution.

•  CO2 marking machines being most common technology is in the market for years and at present compared to high end fiber laser machines can be purchased and installed at a much lower cost.

Consumers from various manufacturing and industrial environments agree that running the fiber marking machine alongside the CO2 facility for months they can clearly see the quality and quicker output of the former. It is a fact that fiber laser marking both in terms of precise marking and cost advantage offers huge benefit to the customers.

Handling marking tasks on fragile and delicate surfaces is a great plus point for state of the art fiber laser marking machines as this technology is particularly great for thin material. With faster delivery and reliable output fiber laser marking technology is way ahead of all other laser marking machines and corresponding technologies.

Portable Dot Peen Marking Systems for Metal Surfaces

Dot Peen marking is one of the preferred methods of marking metallic surfaces. In recent times, it has been greatly preferred for its simplicity and low cost. These factors have helped it remain in favor compared to more modern methods like inkjet print marking and laser marking. The dot peen marking systems consist of a stylus tipped with Silicon carbide or industrial diamond for hardness which is controlled by an electromagnet driven by pulsed current. The required pattern is given to the machine in the form of X-Y co-ordinates, so the metallic surface to be marked is dotted precisely by the stylus when the pulsed current is switched on. A number of dots are placed precisely by the system to produce a recognizable pattern in the form of text, codes, barcodes, serial numbers and rudimentary graphic marks. The dot peen marking systems can also be used for curved and circular surfaces, giving it a big advantage over laser marking systems. The system is most suitable for marking metals and hard non-metallic materials which can withstand the repeated impact of the stylus.

Portable Dot Peen Marking

Portable dot peen marking systems are compact in design, which makes the system easy to be carried and set in place by the operator. Such machines are required for used in workspaces with limited freedom of movement or complex structures like vehicle chassis. The device is held in place either mechanically or electromagnetically to the surface and the stylus marks the required pattern on the surface.

Advantages over Other Marking Systems

Dot peen marking systems are quite compact and do not require expensive cooling systems. The material is not damaged because cutting is not involved. It is most suitable for metal surfaces. The marking can be carried out over an area as large as 300X300 mm with one stylus. The process does not require manual intervention once the design is finalized. In case of base materials like nameplates where the information like batch number or date changes as required, the relevant information can be fed through a computer automatically and it is reproduced faithfully. The marking is also permanent and fade resistant as dyes and chemicals are not used in the process. The compact nature of the machine means it can also be used in small premises and manufacturing lines with limited movement space. The possibility of error is limited since the surface to be marked is tightly clamped before the marking starts.

Types of Portable Dot Peen Marking systems

Depending on the type of area to be marked and nature of material to be marked, the right model can be selected as required. The dot peen marker has an electromagnetic base stand for fixing to the mechanical surface. A high-quality stepper motor is used for controlling the movement of the stylus. Compressed air is provided to power the stylus. The required design to be marked is fed to the device’s controller from a common Windows laptop. Other systems has a handgrip which allows the operator to carry the device into congested workspaces to mark the required parts. The stylus module is held in place by the operator while the marking is carried out. This model is also very useful for car chassis marking because of its compact size and weight. An electromagnetic base plate holds the device securely to the base metal surface.

CNC dot peen marking systems are also on offer. These models carry an integrated computer with touchscreen display, keyboard and software for the operator to regulate the device operation. These models do not require the use of a PC to feed the designs and can be carried in separate briefcases to the area of operation. The operator gets a lot more freedom to change the marking design at the worksite by using a system with an inbuilt CNC controller. Before purchasing one, make sure that all models are ISO 9001:2008 and CE approved.

Why Should You Purchase a Fiber Laser Marking Machine?

What are Fiber Lasers?

Fiber lasers are solid state lasers that use optical fiber to deliver an amplified beam from the seed laser. The amplification is done using pump diodes. The fiber is doped with rare earths like neodymium to achieve amplification. The laser beam does not lose its power even if the optical fiber is bent or coiled. The final output is incredibly focused compared to gas lasers and the temperatures achieved by the beam are up to 100 times better than comparable CO2 lasers. By eliminating expensive cooling systems, fiber lasers are much more compact and simple in design compared to CO2 lasers . Typically fiber lasers use air cooling as compared to the water cooling systems found in gas lasers. They have a long working life and high reliability, along with superior output compared to gas lasers. The light source does not have to be changed often so the maintenance charges are low over the life of the machine. The beam is controlled by means of computer systems. Minimal operator intervention is required for these machines once they are up and running.

How Does Fiber Laser Marking Work?

The heat of the laser beam on the marking surface produces oxidation in the material in the beam path. This manifests as a color change in the material. Since fiber lasers produce very focused beams of light, the pattern produced in the process can be very distinctive compared to the surrounding material and can produces an embedded effect without removing any material. The change is happening at the microscopic level, so the structural strength of the marked surface is not affected. The marking is controlled by an automated system and required minimal human intervention. Laser marking also does not use any dyes or inks to achieve the marking, which leads to lower consumable costs over the lifetime of the product. The systems are also conducive for continuous operation in busy industrial environments. Laser marking is finding preference among consumer electronics manufacturers for the high quality of the output which is both fade free and smudge free over the life of the product. High-end products like smartphones have brought laser marking to ordinary homes all over the world.

What are the applications of Fiber Laser Marking Machine?

Fiber laser marking machine can be used to produce text, logos and two dimensional codes in the surface. Because of the high temperature achieved by the beam, the process is most suitable for metals and some non-metallic materials which can withstand high temperatures. Laser marking ( can be used to imprint the company name and logo on the product to give it a recognizable look without spoiling the product or damaging it. The part number can also be marked using laser to enable easy identification and tracking in use. Marking also enhances security, so that the parts made by one company cannot be passed off by another easily. Bar codes and part numbers can be marked to make high value products easily traceable. Counterfeiting can also be reduced. The industries and sectors which use fiber lasers include consumer electronics, aerospace, manufacturing, metals and minerals, household vessels and many similar areas.

Types of Fiber Laser Marking Machines Available

Depending on the type of application and power of the laser, different types of fiber laser models can be used by customers. The desktop model is most suitable for small and compact work areas. The beam power output is 10 watt. It can be used in continuous operation and can be customized according to the application requirement. The marking can be done over an area of 100mmX100mm to a depth of ≤0.01mm at a speed close to 9000mm/sec. The marking can be done on metals like steel, brass and titanium and non-metallic materials like PVC and PP. Another desktop laser marking system that can used for a long working life of up to 100000 hours. It can be used in continuous mode and has a power output of 20 watt with efficient electricity consumption. The system is air-cooled and can support designs from a wide variety of formats. Some fiber marking model comes with a high power 30 watt beam output. Its working life is more than 100000 hours and it can be used for marking logos, text and graphic codes.

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